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Dystonia treatment

Treatment of dystonia by cautery or implantation of electrical brain stimulators

Dystonia is a motor neuron disorder that leads to continuous muscle spasms and causes twisting of the limbs, hands and trunk of the body. The disease may be caused by genetic causes or genetic changes during creation, lack of oxygen during birth, brain injury, encephalitis, exposure to metal poisoning such as lead, or as a result of side effects of sedative neurological treatments.

The treatment of this disease is very difficult, and treatment is focused on relieving motor symptoms without complete recovery

Types of dystonia

  • (Focal Dystonia) الديستونيا الموضعية:
    Such as spasms affecting the muscles of the eyelids or part of the face or neck, or the mouth and tongue
  • (Generalized Dystonia)الديستونيا العامة:
    It affects all the muscles of the body, limbs and trunk, and appears in children in particular
  • (Segmental Dystonia)الديستونيا المقطعية:
    It is a type of disease that affects two adjacent areas of the body, such as affecting the upper and lower extremities in half of the body, or the upper right and left extremities, or the neck, shoulder and upper extremities. Or affect several local areas
  • Genetic dystonia
    These types result from genetic changes in the chromosomes during the creation of the fetus in its mother’s womb, which leads to a disturbance in the electrical conductivity of the cerebral basal ganglia, which appears (Dy20 to Dy1) of the disease, especially in children, and among the types of these abnormal genes

Some types of dystonia

  • Neck spasm and bending:
    It results from spasms of the neck muscles in a sequential movement and leads to the rotation of the head and its bending forward or backward, or both. These types are initially treated with Botox injections, or a neck surgery to separate the cervical nerves that move the neck muscles from the muscles. In urgent cases, we may resort to brain operations to cauterize the pale nodule or implant brain electrical stimuli.
  • Blepharospasm:
    It is a spasm of the muscles of the eyelids surrounding the eye, where the patient suffers from successive movements of the eyelids that lead to closing the eye. These spasms are treated by Botox injections, which are repeated approximately every four months.
  • Spasm of the jaw and mouth:
    It results from spasms of the muscles of the jaw, mouth, and tongue, and leads to twisting of the jaw and mouth.
  • Laryngeal dystonia:
    It is a spasm of the small muscles in the larynx that are responsible for producing sound and speech, which leads to a decrease in the pitch of the voice to the point of a whisper.
  • Positional hand dystonia:
    This type of disease leads to interference with the muscular movements of the hand, which affects writing, drawing and playing. These spasms usually do not appear except when trying to use the hand and when trying to use the hand for a purpose, the movement is dispersed and does not perform the purpose and is accompanied by muscle pain in the hand.

Dystonia treatment

Conservative treatment for this disease does not give any effective result in controlling the disease, and therefore the use of drugs does not work, and the use of sedatives only increases the side effects of treatment. There are physical methods and judgmental treatments to relax the muscles and give the patient some types of exercises, in addition to treatments, including:

  • Nticholinergics
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Botox injections
  • Dopamine
  • Baclofen

Stereotactic Functional Neurosurgery For Dystonia has developed functional surgery using corrected brain surgery to enter the field of treatment of dystonia. Neck dystonia (Torticollis), where we perform operations to surgically separate the nerves that move the muscles in the neck

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